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His court musicians included C. Bach , Johann Joachim Quantz , Carl Heinrich Graun and Franz Benda. A meeting with Johann Sebastian Bach in in Potsdam led to Bach's writing The Musical Offering.
Frederick aspired to be a Philosopher king ; he joined the Freemasons in and corresponded with key French Enlightenment figures.
These included Voltaire , whose friend the Marquis d'Argens , was appointed Royal Chamberlain in , then Director of the Prussian Academy of Arts and Berlin State Opera.
While using German as a working language in the army and with his administration, Frederick read and wrote his literary works in French and also generally used that language with his closest relatives or friends.
Though he had a good command of this language, his writing style was flawed; he had troubles with its orthography and always had to rely on French proofreaders.
Frederick disliked the German language and literature, explaining that German authors "pile parenthesis upon parenthesis, and often you find only at the end of an entire page the verb on which depends the meaning of the whole sentence".
His main inspirations were ancient philosophers and poets as well as French authors of the 17th century. However, interest in foreign cultures was by no means an exception in Germany at that time.
The Habsburg court at Vienna was open to influences from Italy, Spain and France. Many German rulers sought to emulate the success of Louis XIV of France and adopted French tastes and manners, though often adapted to the German cultural context.
In the case of Frederick II, it might also have been a reaction to the austerity of the family environment created by his father, who had a deep aversion for France and was not interested in the cultural development of his state.
On the other hand, while still considering the German culture of his time to be inferior to that of France or Italy, he did try to foster its development.
He thought that it had been hindered by the devastating wars of the 17th century the Thirty Years' War, the Ottoman wars, the invasions of Louis XIV but that with some time and effort, it could equal or even surpass its rivals.
He disapproved of the luxury and extravagance of the French royal court, and he ridiculed German princes especially Augustus III, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland who imitated French sumptuousness.
Also, Frederick the Great was dismissive of the radical philosophy of later French thinkers such as Rousseau though he in fact sheltered Rousseau from persecution for a number of years , and grew to believe that the French cultural golden age was drawing to a close.
Despite his distaste for German, Frederick did sponsor the Königliche Deutsche Gesellschaft Royal German Society , founded in Königsberg in , the aim of which was to promote and develop the German language.
He allowed the association to be titled "royal" and have its seat at the Königsberg Castle. However, he does not seem to have taken much interest in the work of the society.
Frederick also promoted the use of German instead of Latin in the field of law, though mainly for practical reasons. The king's criticism led many German writers to attempt to impress Frederick with their writings in the German language and thus prove its worthiness.
Many statesmen, including Baron vom und zum Stein , were also inspired by Frederick's statesmanship. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe gave his opinion of Frederick during a visit to Strasbourg Strassburg by writing:.
Well, we had not much to say in favour of the constitution of the Reich; we admitted that it consisted entirely of lawful misuses, but it rose therefore the higher over the present French constitution which is operating in a maze of unlawful misuses, whose government displays its energies in the wrong places and therefore has to face the challenge that a thorough change in the state of affairs is widely prophesied.
In contrast when we looked towards the north, from there shone Frederick, the Pole Star, around whom Germany, Europe, even the world seemed to turn Frederick had many famous buildings constructed in his capital Berlin, most of which still stand today, such as the Berlin State Opera , the Royal Library today the State Library Berlin , St.
Hedwig's Cathedral , and Prince Henry's Palace now the site of Humboldt University. However, the king preferred spending his time in his summer residence at Potsdam, where he built the palace of Sanssouci , the most important work of Northern German rococo.
Sanssouci French for "carefree" or "without worry" , was a refuge for Frederick. As a great patron of the arts, Frederick was a collector of paintings and ancient sculptures; his favorite artist was Jean-Antoine Watteau.
The picture gallery at Sanssouci "represents a unique synthesis of the arts in which architecture, painting, sculpture and the decorative arts enter into dialogue with each other, forming a compendium of the arts.
Both the wall paneling of the galleries and the diamond shapes of the floor consist of white and yellow marble. Paintings by different schools were displayed strictly separately: 17th-century Flemish and Dutch paintings filled the western wing and the gallery's central building, while Italian paintings from the High Renaissance and Baroque were exhibited in the eastern wing.
Sculptures were arranged symmetrically or in rows in relation to the architecture. Aarsleff notes that before Frederick came to the throne in , the Prussian Academy of Sciences Berlin Academy was overshadowed by similar bodies in London and Paris.
During the reign of Frederick's father, the Academy had been closed down as an economy measure, but Frederick promptly re-opened it when he took the throne in Frederick made French the official language and speculative philosophy the most important topic of study.
However the Academy was in a crisis for two decades at mid-century, due to scandals and internal rivalries such as the debates between Newtonianism and Leibnizian views, and the personality conflict between Voltaire and Maupertuis.
At a higher level Maupertuis, the director —59 and a monarchist, argued that the action of individuals was shaped by the character of the institution that contained them, and they worked for the glory of the state.
By contrast d' Alembert took a republican rather than monarchical approach and emphasized the international Republic of Letters as the vehicle for scientific advance.
Frederick invited Joseph-Louis Lagrange to succeed Leonhard Euler at the Berlin Academy ; both were world-class mathematicians. Other intellectuals attracted to the philosopher's kingdom were Francesco Algarotti , d'Argens , and Julien Offray de La Mettrie.
Immanuel Kant published religious writings in Berlin which would have been censored elsewhere in Europe. Most modern biographers agree that Frederick was primarily homosexual , and that his sexual orientation was central to his life.
At age 16, Frederick seems to have embarked upon a youthful affair with Peter Karl Christoph von Keith, a year-old page of his father.
Rumors of the liaison spread in the court and the "intimacy" between the two boys provoked the condemnation of even his elder and favorite sister, Wilhelmine ,  who wrote, "Though I had noticed that he was on more familiar terms with this page than was proper in his position, I did not know how intimate the friendship was.
As a result, Keith was dismissed from his service to the king and sent away to a regiment by the Dutch border, while Frederick was sent to Wusterhausen in order to "repent of his sin.
Frederick's physician Johann Georg Ritter von Zimmermann claimed that Frederick had suffered a minor deformity during an operation to cure gonorrhea in , and convinced himself that he was impotent, but pretended to be homosexual in order to appear that he was still virile and capable of intercourse, albeit with men.
This story is doubted by Wolfgang Burgdorf, who is of the opinion that "Frederick had a physical disgust of women" and therefore "was unable to sleep with them.
In , Frederick met the Venetian philosopher Francesco Algarotti , and they were both infatuated.
Challenged by Algarotti that northern Europeans lacked passion, Frederick penned for him an erotic poem, La Jouissance , which imagined what some have described as Algarotti in the throes of sexual intercourse with another partner, a female named Chloris.
In , Frederick was forced to marry Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Bevern , with whom he had no children.
He immediately separated from his wife when his father died seven years later. He would later only pay her formal visits once a year.
William Hogarth 's painting The Toilette features a flautist who stands next to a painting of Zeus , as an eagle, abducting Ganymede , his male lover in Greek mythology , which may be a satirical depiction of Frederick — thereby publicly outing him as a homosexual as early as Frederick certainly spent much of his time at Sanssouci, his favourite residence in Potsdam, in a circle that was exclusively male, though a number of his entourage were married.
Their literary correspondence and friendship, which spanned almost 50 years, was marked by mutual intellectual fascination, and began as a flirtation.
Voltaire's angry attack on Maupertuis, the President of Frederick's academy, in the form of Le Diatribe du Docteur Akakia provoked Frederick to burn the pamphlet publicly and put Voltaire under house arrest, after which Voltaire left Prussia.
The revelations and language were strikingly similar to those detailed in a scurrilous pamphlet written in French and published in London in In , Frederick signed a Treaty of Amity and Commerce with the United States of America , recognising the independence of the new nation.
The agreement included a novel clause, whereby the two leaders of the executive branches of either country guaranteed a special and humane detention for prisoners of war.
Near the end of his life, Frederick grew increasingly solitary. His circle of close friends at Sanssouci gradually died off with few replacements, and Frederick became increasingly critical and arbitrary, to the frustration of the civil service and officer corps.
The populace of Berlin always cheered the king when he returned to the city from provincial tours or military reviews, but Frederick evinced little pleasure from his popularity with the common people, preferring instead the company of his pet Italian greyhounds ,  whom he referred to as his " marquises de Pompadour " as a jibe at the French royal mistress.
On the morning of 17 August , Frederick died in an armchair in his study at Sanssouci, aged He left instructions that he should be buried next to his greyhounds on the vineyard terrace, on the side of the corps de logis of Sanssouci.
His nephew and successor Frederick William II instead ordered the body to be entombed next to his father in the Potsdam Garrison Church.
Near the end of World War II, Hitler ordered Frederick's coffin, along with those of his father Frederick William I , World War I Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg , and Hindenburg's wife Gertrud, to be hidden in a salt mine as protection from destruction.
The United States Army relocated the remains to Marburg in ; in , the coffins of Frederick and his father were moved to Burg Hohenzollern.
On the th anniversary of his death, on 17 August , Frederick's casket lay in state in the court of honor at Sanssouci, covered by a Prussian flag and escorted by a Bundeswehr guard of honor.
After nightfall, Frederick's body was finally laid to rest in the terrace of the vineyard of Sanssouci—in the still existing crypt he had built there—without pomp, in accordance with his will.
In German memory, Frederick became a great national hero in the 19th century and many Germans said he was the greatest monarch in modern history.
Nationalist historian Heinrich von Treitschke presented Frederick as the greatest German in centuries. Onno Klopp was one of the few German historians of the 19th century who denigrated and ridiculed Frederick.
The novelist Thomas Mann in also attacked Frederick, arguing—like Empress Maria Theresa—that he was a wicked man who robbed Austria of Silesia, precipitating the alliance against him.
Nevertheless, with Germany humiliated after World War I, Frederick's popularity as a heroic figure remained high in Germany. Thomas Carlyle 's History of Frederick the Great 8 vol.
In —, the Nazis glorified Frederick as a precursor to Adolf Hitler and presented Frederick as holding out hope that another miracle would again save Germany at the last moment.
Dorpalen says: "The book was indeed a very courageous indictment of Hitler's irrationalism and recklessness, his ideological fanaticism and insatiable lust for power".
Throughout World War II , Hitler often compared himself to Frederick the Great. Craig relates that to help legitimize Nazi rule Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels commissioned artists to render fanciful images of Frederick, Bismarck, and Hitler together to postulate a historical continuum between them.
Frederick's reputation was sharply downgraded after in both East and West Germany. In the 21st century, his reputation as a capable and effective leader remains strong among military historians.
How much of the king's achievement was based on developments already under way, and how much of these advancements can be directly attributed to him.
Further interest in how close he was to The Enlightenment in Europe and the usefulness category of "enlightened absolutism" is frequent among German historians.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Der alte Fritz. King of Prussia, — Frederick the Great, by Wilhelm Camphausen.
King of Prussia Elector of Brandenburg. See list. Sanssouci , Potsdam. Main articles: First Silesian War and Second Silesian War.
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Conquest: How Societies Overwhelm Others. Axel Richter siirtyi kauden 43 viimeisen jakson "Der Tote im Acker jälkeen vaihto-ohjelmaan Washingtoniin, myös Werner Riedman siirtyi saman jakson jälkeen Saksan keskusrikospoliisin palvelukseen.
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